Author : PIYUSH R VISHWAKARMA
Title – CHILD LABOUR
Child Labour as a Problem of Labour Markets and Economic Development.
Palley says Child labour is a big problem and it happens because some people exploit children for work. This is bad because children should be in school and not working. Some companies have promised not to use child labour, but this doesn’t solve the real problem. To solve the problem, we need to make sure that all countries follow certain rules to protect workers. These rules are called “core labour standards” and they help to make sure that workers are treated fairly. Some people think that these rules are bad for poor countries, but that’s not true. They also help to make sure that workers are paid fairly and that the government is doing a good job. So, to get rid of child labour, we need to make sure that workers are treated fairly and that the economy is doing well. Following the core labour standards can help us do this.
Child labour and compulsory education: the effects of government education policy on economic growth and welfare.
LU says The paper discusses a model that shows how government policies on education can lead to economic growth and improved welfare, especially in developing countries. The study found that increasing the duration of compulsory education or investing more in the education sector can help improve economic growth and reduce child labour. However, the model has limitations, and further analysis is needed to derive the first-best policy. The study also suggests that subsistence consumption can affect the results and may have different impacts in countries with different levels of development. Overall, the paper highlights the importance of education policies for economic growth and welfare.
Parental Problem-drinking and Adult Children’s Labour Market Outcomes.
Balsa says how parental problem-drinking affects their children’s labour market outcomes. The study finds that children of problem-drinking parents are more likely to experience negative effects on their employment prospects, such as longer periods out of the workforce, longer unemployment spells, and lower wages. The analysis suggests that these effects may be related to lower socioeconomic status, lower educational attainment, and increased likelihood of experiencing mental and physical health issues. While the study does not establish a clear causal relationship between parental problem-drinking and children’s labor market outcomes, it suggests that the association is a cause for concern.
Child Labour as a Human Security Problem: Evidence from India.
Majumdar says this paper contributes to the understanding of child labour by emphasizing the importance of child well-being as a separate concern, the need for public policies to complement private resources, and the recognition of child labour as a form of social failure. It calls for concerted efforts to combat child labour and address the underlying social and economic inequalities that perpetuate this issue.
International Trade and Child Labour.
Hasnat says, it is argued that trade itself is not the root cause of child labour in developing countries. Rather, child labour is deeply entrenched in poverty and societal customs. The initiatives by developed countries to restrict imports of goods produced by children are questioned, as they are based on potentially flawed assumptions and may have unintended negative consequences. Immediate attention should be given to protecting children engaged in hazardous and inhumane work environments. Simultaneously, long-term efforts should focus on achieving universal education to draw children out of the labour force. Successful examples from newly industrialized countries demonstrate that sending children to school instead of work is key to minimizing child labour.
Challenges and Perspectives of Child Labour.
Miller says Child labour is a public health issue with negative outcomes that demands special attention. A multidisciplinary approach is needed to tackle child labour issues. Per ILO, poverty is a major single cause behind child labour. Lack of affordable schools and affordable education is another major factor to force children to work. Certain cultural beliefs rationalize this practice and encourage child labour as character building and skill development for children. Some cultural traditions encourage child labour as footsteps to their parents’ jobs. Socioeconomic disparities, poor governance, and poor implementation of international agreements are among major causes of child labour. Child labor prevents the normal well-being including physical, intellectual, and emotional psychosocial development of children.
Important Determinants of Child Labour: A Case for Lahore.
Siddiqi says there are no two opinions about child labour. It is condemned in all societies. Still, it is present, in one shape or the other, in all parts of the globe. The current study is an investigation for the most important variants in the dynamics of child labour in any society, in general, and for Lahore, in particular. Poverty‐driven factors are revealed to be the most important factors for child labour while household size and labour‐related factors are numbers two and three, respectively. Poverty, as different research suggests, is linked usually with macroeconomic policies and conditions and the household poverty may be taken as a derivative of such policies and conditions. Although the study is conducted in Lahore, the results may easily be generalized for any society with similar socio economic conditions. Societies with household characteristics and socioeconomic conditions similar to those of Lahore are expected to have the same child labour outcomes.
Labour Standards and WTO Rules: Survey of the Issues with Reference to Child Labour in South Asia.
Kishor says This paper contributes to the on-going debate about the use of trade sanctions against countries with poor labour standards, including child labour, as a means of reducing unfair trade practices. While the health, safety, and welfare of working children are often put forward as the reason for implementing trade sanctions, punishing countries on the grounds of child labour practices would be grossly ineffective unless poverty and underdevelopment are addressed. This would require more, not less integration of these countries into the world trading system. It has been argued that directing development assistance toward improving institutions and social infrastructure, as well as toward increasing access to schooling for poor families would be a better strategy. In addition, it is important to ensure that incomes of poor families do not fall substantially when children are out of work. Also, linking part-time work to schooling appears to be an effective way of reducing child labor, as evidenced in Bangladesh and Pakistan.
Child Labour in the Global Economy.
Edmonds says child labour is a complex issue with various forms and contexts across different countries. While there are cases of extreme exploitation and abuse, such as children working in hazardous conditions or forced into prostitution, these represent a minority. The majority of working children are involved in assisting their families with domestic work, family businesses, or farming. Child labour is primarily a symptom of poverty and inadequate institutions. However, improving living standards and increasing family incomes can contribute to reducing child labour in the long term. In conclusion, while extreme cases of child labour deserve immediate attention, combating child labour requires a multifaceted approach that addresses poverty, improves education, and promotes economic development.
The Long term Association between Child Labour and Cognitive development.
Dinku says in summary, this research study focuses on the relationship between child labour and cognitive development, specifically in the context of Ethiopia. The study finds that there is a strong association between the amount of time children spend on income-generating work and household chores, and their cognitive development. This suggests that existing levels of child labour in Ethiopia have harmful effects on children’s cognitive abilities. Overall, this research provides evidence that child labour, even in its less extreme forms, can have significant negative effects on children’s cognitive development, highlighting the need for interventions and policies to reduce child labour and promote healthy childhood development.
In conclusion, the issue of child labour is a complex problem that requires attention and action from various perspectives. The studies reviewed shed light on different aspects of child labour and its implications. Palley emphasizes the importance of core labour standards to protect workers, including children, and argues that following these standards can help eradicate child labour. LU focuses on the role of government education policies in reducing child labour and promoting economic growth and welfare. Balsa examines the negative impact of parental problem-drinking on children’s labour market outcomes, indicating the need for interventions and support for affected families. Majumdar highlights child labour as a human security problem, emphasizing the importance of public policies and addressing underlying social and economic inequalities. Hasnat argues that while trade itself is not the root cause of child labour, efforts should focus on protecting children from hazardous work environments and promoting universal education. Miller emphasizes the need for a multidisciplinary approach to tackle child labour, addressing poverty, cultural beliefs, and governance issues. Siddiqi identifies poverty-driven factors as the most significant determinants of child labour, highlighting the importance of addressing household poverty and implementing effective macroeconomic policies. Kishor discusses the debate around trade sanctions as a means to address poor labour standards, suggesting alternative strategies such as improving institutions and social infrastructure. Edmonds highlights the diverse forms and contexts of child labour and underscores the need to address poverty and inadequate institutions. Finally, Dinku’s study specifically examines the association between child labour and cognitive development in Ethiopia, providing evidence of the detrimental effects of child labour on children’s cognitive abilities. In summary, these studies collectively emphasize the need for comprehensive approaches that address poverty, improve education, ensure fair labour standards, and promote economic development to effectively tackle child labour and protect children’s rights.
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