China
The first human transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, the virus responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), was reported to
occur in Wuhan, China on November 17, 2019. On March 11, 2020, following
identification of 118,000 Covid-19 cases in 114 countries responsible for nearly 4300
deaths, the World Health Organization recognized Covid-19 as a pandemic.

Other countries
In some European, North American, and South East Asian countries and territories, the first
wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic was showing a decline in late June 2020
when it was raging in other parts of the world, particularly in the United States, Latin America,
South Africa, Saudi Arabia, Iran, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Indonesia. Lockdowns and other
tough restrictive measures, which helped governments slow the spread of infection, have already dealt
a severe blow to the global economy, causing the deepest one-time drop in production in modern history.

India

India reported its first case of COVID-19 on 30 January 2020; a medical student who had travelled from Wuhan, China, the then epicentre of COVID-1915. On 15th March 2020, India sealed its borders and stopped all international flights, meaning
all initial imported cases in India arrived before 15 March 2020. According to the data available in the public domain, as of 12 April 2020, India had 8606 cases (both imported cases and
due to person-to-person transmission).

Challenges

In India, till now (9 July 2021), there have been 30,752,950 confirmed cases of COVID-19 with 405,939 deaths reported to the WHO. Life is deeply affected by COVID-19 even for the ones who are not infected as isolation, contact restrictions and economic shutdown have changed the social and economic scenario. Cases were initially spread by migrants, overseas visitors, and some others who were in contact with these infected persons, and to control this spread lockdowns were called by various countries including India.

Lockdown

India implemented a strict nationwide lockdown from 25 March until 31 May 2020,3 after which phased lockdown for containment zones is in effect until 30 June 2020. The government implemented a zonal classification of regions in the nation, with each region falling in one of three classes—red zones, orange zones and green zones. As of 11 June, the number of total confirmed cases in India has crossed 298 000, of whom 8501 have died and 146 972 have recovered, placing India at a worldwide rank of 4 in terms of total confirmed cases. The number of new cases in India is not on the decline even after 9 weeks of national lockdown. The tests primarily used are the rapid antigen tests and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) tests, with the former being given priority in containment zones and points of entry, while the latter are more widely used in non-containment areas and hospital settings

Effects

The COVID-19 crisis and the accompanying lockdown have undoubtedly affected every individual in one way or the other. While the lockdown may help in effectively addressing this
pandemic, the state and society at large need to be sensitive to the mental health impacts of a
long-drawn-out lockdown. Vulnerable populations such as women and the marginalized
deserve immediate attention. However, it behooves society to also address the root causes driving the unequal distribution of psychological distress during such crises.

Impact

The results
show that after the lockdown was relieved, all pollutants
except O3 tended to increase, even though Greater Bangkok’s
populace still kept to decreased mobility and social activity.
is implies that the COVID-19 lockdown was able to pause
some emissions, i.e., traffic and commercial and industrial activities, but not all of them. Even low traffic
emissions could not absolutely cause a reduction in air pollution since several primary emission sources dominate
the air quality over. In addition, social
distancing guidelines recommended that people stay at home,
which caused the consumption of higher electricity, resulting
in electric power plants increasing their production capacity
and emitting more air pollution.

Negative impact

The TCN levels dropped significantly by 18 % across
the country during the strict lockdown period compared
to the preceding year with a p value of 0.0007. A reduction of 29 % in TCN levels was observed over
the hotspot regions of the Indian sub-continent during
the total LD period with a higher confidence interval. The TCN levels with respect to short-term climatological mean markedly dropped over the urban
cities, namely New Delhi (−54 %), Bangalore (−43 %),
Chennai (−41 %), Mumbai (−35 %), and Hyderabad
(−30 %) with a high confidence interval of about
99.90 %. An unusual increase in TCN levels over the NE region
of India is attributed to the seasonal biomass burning in
this region. This increase is also evaluated statistically
against 5-year mean TCN and found to be insignificant
with a p value of 0.19.

Second wave

The second wave of COVID-19 infection experienced by several countries is a testimony that the threat of COVID-19 is far from over. This warrants development of strategies which diagnostic laboratories across the globe can adopt to promptly
address the need for increased testing requirement. Although advent of antigen and antibodybased tests can fulfill the requirements of rapid testing, their overall applicability is limited by
sub-optimal diagnostic sensitivity.Nevertheless, it is advisable that laboratories validate the 4-sample pooling
strategy against the disease prevalence in the geographical area they are serving, prior to adopting the same for routine diagnostic application.

Vaccination

Since healthcare workers are directly involved in diagnosing, treating, and taking care of patients, they are at high risk of infection.6 Most countries have started their vaccination programs. Vaccination has been shown to be effective in reducing the severity of complications. Although a high number of healthcare workers considered themselves as a priority group for COVID-19 vaccination, one-third of them were not willing to be vaccinated mainly because of safety concerns. Healthcare workers not willing to take the vaccine had poor perception scores, which suggests the need to strengthen knowledge to improve vaccination.

Covid19
Author – Priyanka Katpara
As we can see how the novel Corona virus affected the world starting from China. How it got spread all over the world and how badly it affected the economy, health, lifestyle and many more. Especially to the underdeveloped countries for example India.
It had positive impacts but the negative impacts were much higher than the positive. The second wave caused a huge impact on the economy but the front line workers and the vaccine helped to control the spread of the virus.

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