Negative Impacts of Corona Virus in India

Author: Yukta Mehta

1. History of corona Virus
In December 2019, COVID-19 was first identified in Wuhan, China, as a respiratory tract infection causing symptoms, such as fever, chills, dry cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. This atypical viral pneumonia has disabled the world, causing catastrophic health and economic losses. COVID-19 was declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the end of January, according to the standards of International Health Regulations (2005) by the World Health Organization. On 30 January 2020, India reported the country’s first case of COVID-19 in Kerala. The index case was a student returning from Wuhan and was isolated in a hospital. As of 3 February, a total of three cases were confirmed in Kerala, with all initial cases coming from different cities. By 20 February, they were declared recovered. On the contrary, Klein et al. assume that community transmission in India most likely started at the beginning of March. On 14 March, India reported its first two COVID-19 related deaths. Accordingly, both patients were of age >65 years and with comorbidities. Throughout the first weeks after the outbreak onset until mid-May, India’s case-fatality ratio (CFR) remained stable at a constant 3.2. Due to the unprecedented spread of the virus, the world has gone into a virtual lockdown as several countries have initiated strict screening of potential cases introduced in their territory. (Altan)

2. Impact on health and social workers
During corona crisis without caring about self, doctors, police officers, people from NGO’s etc, were in 24/7 duty in order to save lives of corona infected ones. (RSS) Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh has helped a lot of people by giving them food and other needful things. People from pest control team came every 2 months for sanitizing the whole building. Some of the health and social workers lost their lives as getting infected by corona during helping or trying to save life of others. Health and social care workers have carried a heavy burden during the COVID-19 crisis and, in the challenge to control the virus, have directly faced its consequences.
(Daly, J. R.)

3. Impact on Firms
Economic activity, which has significantly stagnated in many sectors, such as tourism, transportation, energy, construction, production, catering, clothing, entertainment has caused sharp declines in consumption and investment expenditures. It has been inevitable that this decline will negatively affect the unemployment rates which are already high, and the growth rate figures that began this year with an expectation of recovery. Especially, the fact that the contraction in demand may continue for a long time due to the permanent changes caused by the process in consumer behaviors may limit the positive effects of support and stimulus package for continuing production, preventing dismissal of workers and providing new employment in the public and may cause an increase in unemployment. (Varshney)
4. Health Impacts
As the global burden of novel coronavirus disease Covid-19 continues to increase, particularly in low and middle- income countries such as India, it imposes huge costs on individuals, communities, health systems, and economies. Corona virus has infected so many people that in some hospitals beds were not available for patients. After recovering from covid, some people’s body’s parts got permanently damaged. Eg. lungs got 20% nonfunctional out of 100% after covid recovery. Corona sometimes also goes in a person’s chest and can then cause Pnemonia and then the person can die. Further, most countries reassigned the health staff towards COVID-19 support, which affected routine care for NCDs. Several reports indicated change in routine care to virtual consultations and worsened mental health problems during the pandemic. Diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and hypertension were the most impacted conditions due to significant reduction in access to care. As of March 11, 2021 more than 11 million people in India had been infected with COVID-19, and about 158,000 had died. Further, the progression of COVID-19 from urban to rural areas, the strict lockdown measures, and the associated economic shocks are likely to impede efforts to address other health scourges in India such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. management in India. (Ekren)

5. Psychological impact
When the global focus has mostly been on testing, finding a cure and preventing transmission; people are going through a myriad of psychological problems in adjusting to the current lifestyles and fear of the disease. During the initial stages of COVID-19 in India, almost one-third respondents had a significant psychological impact. Since the start of the pandemic in March 2020, preventive measures, including lockdowns, social isolation, quarantine, and social distancing, have been implemented to reduce viral spread. These measures, while effective for risk prevention, may contribute to increased social isolation and loneliness among older adults and negatively affect their mental and bodily health. Social isolation and loneliness affect human health, well-being, and overall quality of life and are known risk factors for poor mental and body health across an individual’s lifespan, particularly among adults aged over 65 years. Social isolation is defined as “the objective lack or limited extent of social contacts with others,” whereas loneliness is defined as “the perception of social isolation or the subjective feeling of being lonely”. Research has documented the relationship between social isolation and loneliness and mental health contributing to depression, suicides, home sickness, etc. (Oakman)
6. Impacts of Corona on children
It is now proven that Coronavirus does not spare any age group. It has affected children, adults, and the elderly in almost similar patterns. A study done in China documented the first case of a severely ill one-year-old boy with COVID-19 pneumonia. He had been previously healthy and up to date with immunizations. He presented with unique symptoms of intermittent diarrhea, vomiting, and fever with shortness of breath and later on developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and septic shock accompanied by acute renal failure. Another study discussed a 55-day old baby who got infected with COVID-19 and presented with multiple organ failure. On the other hand, data has also suggested that approximately 90% of children who were infected had mild to moderate symptoms, and only a few required hospitalization.
In addition to the severity of symptoms, studies were also done to see the sources of infection in children. In one study, data were collected for nine infants who got infected and were admitted to hospitals in China. It was revealed that infected family members living together could be a source for transmission, as these small babies cannot wear masks. Luckily, none of them required mechanical ventilation. One of the Iranian studies demonstrated infected pediatric cases with a history of one infected family member. Some studies have also suggested that most of the infected children had milder symptoms and a better prognosis, and hence most of them improved rapidly. Even though there is no evidence so far regarding the transplacental transmission of infection, more than 230 neonates have been infected . Children are considered less vulnerable by some. Supporters of this idea attribute this to the assumption that children have limited interaction with the outer world compared to adults. Hence, they are at less risk of developing the infection with no fatal outcomes. However, some studies show that despite the limited exposure to the outside world, children are still at risk of getting the infection from their family members who are exposed to the environment. (Hajra)
7. Impacts on migrants and poor people
Due to corona many factory workers migrated to their village again as due to lockdown the factories were closed and their families were dependant on them so they went to their home town and started some small business. They were seen as chaos creators since they wanted to go back home and wanted safety. This section of society not only faced job loss due to reduction in economic activities, but also many of them lost their lives due to violence, starvation, lack of earning, indebtedness and extreme psychological and physiological stress, which also went grossly unnoticed by policy makers (Ray & Subramanian, 2020). Government has made poor people open Jandhan account in which Government keeps money in that account for poor people. Government has spent a crores of money has opened many schemes during corona period to give free of food grains to poor people. (Subha)

8. In general impact on work-sector
The current global pandemic caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in an unprecedented situation with wide ranging health and economic impacts. The working environment has been significantly changed with thousands of jobs lost and women impacted at higher rates than men. For those employed in sectors able to work remotely, mostly white-collar professional workers, their homes have now become their workplace, school, and place for relaxation.
Many organisations will continue mandating working at home (WAH) for the foreseeable future to avoid making COVID-19 regulation related changes to their office environments. The emergence of new technologies has revolutionised working patterns, enabling work from anywhere for many employees
This ongoing pandemic is a type of rare and extreme crisis scenario, generating morbidity, mortality, and stress globally. In addition to its physical infliction, the general population of all age groups, from all over the world is impacted by the storm of social stigma of fear, depression, and anxiety. (Singh)

9. Changes happened due to Covid
The Corona-virus disease has affected over 100 countries in a matter of weeks. The way humans live and work on planet Earth has changed profoundly over the last months. Many lives and livelihoods have been lost. In marriages now today only 100 people, 50-50 from both sides are allowed to visit. Ways of working, shopping and social interactions have all changed. Now this has become an era of Digitalization when everything is now becoming digital day by day like online classes, online payment, online shopping, online banking, work from home, etc. In funeral only limited people can go now, people show their grievance to family on social media platform. Government inevitably had to make important public health, economic, governance and ecological decisions with less information than usual and to reverse recently adopted policies, which can lead to an era of disruptive transformations to sustainability. The world is experiencing one of the most transformative moments of the last 100 years. We do not know when the current crisis will end, or how much time things will take to be normal like before pandemic. (De Kock)

10. How the situation was controlled
The mainstay of prevention of this widespread disease is being controlled by involving isolation, for some months group of more than 4 people were not allowed in public places, sanitizing things before using it, using hand sanitizers frequently, home quarantine and social distancing. Globally affected areas are in lockdown state. Cancellation of transports, fixed timings for opening of stores and vegetable market, imposing fines for people who avoided wearing masks and in some areas Lathi charge was also imposed on people who were roaming out without reason, social distancing while buying things from store, in some buildings there were fixed timings for going out and outsiders were not allowed in some buildings, schools, malls, colleges were closed. The lockdowns were extended till the situation gets better. (Gupta, P)

Conclusion
Corona virus has affected our people of country in numerous ways like affecting physical and mental health and also the lockdowns been put to control corona virus resulting in people suffering depression and obesity being all the time at home. Many people lost their loved ones in this pandemic. Hence these are the problems face by our country due to Covid-19 pandemic.

Reference
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