Topic: DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
Name: Sonal R. Gupta

Consequences of COVID-19 On Domestic Violence

COVID‐19 has been declared a global pandemic. As we all know recent weeks to tackle it have seen people’s day‐to‐day life drastically altered. These changes are essential to beat coronavirus and protect health systems. However, there are unintended, negative consequences. As the virus continues to spread across the world, it brings with it multiple new stresses, including physical and psychological health risks, isolation and loneliness, the closure of many schools and businesses, economic vulnerability, and job losses. Through all of that, children are particularly vulnerable to the risk of domestic violence. It is a broad term that encompasses intimate partner violence, a form of abuse that is commit by a current or ex‐partner. Caroline Bradbury‐Jones, et al (2020)

The case for Indian women

Domestic violence is one of the most pernicious gendered ailments of human society. Domestic violence cases are vast in India, and the numbers are further aggravated at an alarming rate during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Newspapers reporting the incidents of domestic violence during the last 5 years were analyzed to explore the issues related to the surge in domestic violence incidents during the COVID‐19 lockdown period. Also, the cases were higher during the initial phases of the pandemic but gradually decreased as time progressed. The impact of the COVID‐19 pandemic on women was worse than before. Not only the government and law enforcement agencies but also the non-governmental organizations and the general public must come together to create conditions in which reaching out for help is made easy. Maji, et al (2021)

Domestic Violence with Pregnant Women

This study indicated a high prevalence of domestic violence and its association with a lower quality of life among pregnant women during the pandemic. In Iran, pregnant women visit health centers during their pregnancy to receive healthcare services. Hence, it is vital to screen pregnant women in terms of domestic violence in these centers as well as other relevant centers, besides taking the proper interventions to address domestic violence and improve the quality of life in abused women. Implementing effective solutions to prevent and address such violence against women is important, not only for women’s health, but also for the health of unborn children and other children in the family. Naghizadeh, et al (2021)

Help Seeking by Male Victims

This aims to conduct an integrated mixed methods synthesis of systematic review evidence on the topic of help-seeking by male victims of domestic violence and abuse. Domestic violence and abuse are a violation of human rights which damages the health and wellbeing of victims, their families, and their friends. There has been less research on the experiences and support needs of male victims than those of women. Huntley, et al (2020)

Coping Strategies Among Adults

This study was conducted to find out domestic violence prevalence and coping strategies among married adults during lockdown in India. With about 7.4% study participants facing domestic violence during lockdown, it is necessary to study its detailed epidemiology in pandemics so that interventions like helpline numbers, screening of patients during tele-consultation, etc. which can be delivered even during lockdown with the help of healthcare and frontline workers could be devised to address this problem. For development of strategies and interventions to check the incidents of domestic violence, it is required to conduct further studies among both the genders to explore the epidemiology of domestic violence, more than half of the victims (57.1%) chose to ignore and only 14.7% victims complained to police or women helpline and one of the reasons cited for not complaining was lack of assurance of action from legal agencies. It is therefore required that law enforcing agencies should use social media and other platforms to give a strong message to the community that violence incidents will be given high priority even during lockdown so that victims would feel free to seek legal help and ignorance is not used as a coping strategy. Dedicated helplines should be started, and zero tolerance approach should be maintained. Sharma, P., & Khokhar, A. (2021).

Key To Helping End Domestic Violence

We spoke with people who avoided talking to their loved ones about the abuse and did not help. others did not want to cause drama or conflict in their families and friendship groups by talking about the abuse or going against cultural scripts for communication and showing respect. we believe that family and friends are key to ending domestic violence and play a role that is distinct from what service professionals can provide. Because of their importance we believe that researchers and service providers must work more closely with family and friends to communicate what domestic violence looks like in their families and communities, and how to identify how cultural and family values and scripts limit and expand their choices to help. By engaging family and friends, we can build larger, inspired communities committed to ending domestic violence. Chronister, K. M. (2020, Sep 15)

Challenges For Combating Domestic Violence

The pandemic has increased risk factors for gender-based violence, according to the American Psychological Association. The survey was conducted Against Domestic Violence and Professionals who serve survivors of gender-based violence were asked to complete the online survey. From survey they had to know that “Gender-based violence, such as intimate partner violence, child abuse, sexual assault, and human trafficking, are crimes that thrive on survivor isolation. The isolation resulting from this pandemic, coupled with financial strain and a myriad of mental health issues experienced by many, creates a perfect storm to enhance the occurrence of gender-based violence. Sutton, H. (2021)

Lessons To Be Learned

The risks of violence that women and their children have faced during the COVID-19 crisis have provided an opportunity to improve and put in place efficient systems to protect women from violence. It is important that specific needs of women are addressed and women who have faced violence participate in the planning. Innovative methods need to be used such as that in Spain and Greece where pharmacy and supermarket workers could be trained as partners and the code word “Mask-19” was adopted for women seeking help for violence in a discreet manner. In the protection of women, besides recognition of the structural nature of violence, the government should strengthen the existing laws on general based violence and facilitate online filing of cases by women. An integrated response that involves a collaboration of policymakers, the police, justice system, shelters, mental health and social services, technology experts, researchers, NGOs, and women survivors is the way forward in creating a comprehensive and inclusive action plan for pandemic and lockdown response to DV. Krishnan, T., et al (2020)

Mental Health Solutions for Domestic Violence Victims

Domestic violence is a public health crisis. It affects both women and men, and it could interrupt generations of people’s aims, aspirations, or ambitions, undermine their chance at a violence-free life. However, there is a lack of mental health interventions tailored to domestic violence victims in the COVID-19. In this, we identified practical and multidisciplinary interventions that can be effectively adopted and applied to address the mental health challenges domestic violence victims face. Overall, domestic violence victims need more resources and help to no longer suffer in silence, in pain, alone, or afraid during the current and future pandemics. Su, Z et al (2021)

Improving Health Care Response

4 women in Europe will experience domestic violence and abuse (DVA) in their lifetime. Abuse can take many forms, including, psychological, physical, sexual, financial, and emotional abuse. There is growing recognition of the health consequences of DVA in public policy and academic research across Europe and the globe. International and national policy guidance indicates that healthcare professionals have important roles in responding to patients experiencing DVA, usually with regard to identifying abuse and referring for specialist support. Barriers to engaging in DVA relate to lack of confidence in recognizing abuse or initiating conversations about it, fears of exacerbating violence, limited awareness of the resources available to support patients, and training in providing trauma-informed medical care. This session will give insight into efforts to improve the healthcare response to DVA and It will bring together lessons learnt about what works and what does not work in addressing DVA in clinical settings, with specific insights for professionals working in mental health services. Dowrick, A. (2021)

CONCLUSION:

Domestic violence is one of the most pernicious gendered ailments of human society. Domestic violence cases are vast in India as well as other countries and the numbers are further aggravated at an alarming rate during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Media reporting the incidents of domestic violence during the last 5 years were analyzed to explore the issues related to the surge in domestic violence incidents during the COVID‐19 lockdown period. Through research, we found out more than half of the victims (57.1%) chose to ignore and only 14.7% victims complained to police or women helpline and one of the reasons cited for not complaining was lack of assurance of action from legal agencies. Also, found that male victims face the domestic violence situation too. so, we need to support them also, who are suffering from this trauma have to talk with their family and friends.

References:
Caroline Bradbury‐Jones, & Isham, L. (2020). The pandemic paradox: The consequences of COVID‐19 on domestic violence. Journal of Clinical Nursing, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocn.15296.

Chronister, K. M. (2020, Sep 15). Family and friends can be key to helping end domestic violence, study suggests. The Conversation : Health Retrieved from https://www.proquest.com/newspapers/family-friends-can-be-key-helping-end-domestic/docview/2487136575/se-2?accountid=141537

Dowrick, A. (2021). Improving health care response to domestic violence. European Psychiatry, 64, S68. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/j.eurpsy.2021.212.

Huntley, A. L., Szilassy, E., Potter, L., Malpass, A., Williamson, E., & Feder, G. (2020). Help seeking by male victims of domestic violence and abuse: An example of an integrated mixed methods synthesis of systematic review evidence defining methodological terms. BMC Health Services Research, 20, 1-17. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05931-x.

Krishnan, T., Hassan, S., Satyanarayana, V., & Chandra, P. (2020). Domestic violence during the COVID-19 pandemic: Lessons to be learned. Indian Journal of Social Psychiatry, 36(5), 120-125. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijsp.ijsp_264_20.

Maji, S., Bansod, S., & Singh, T. (2021). Domestic violence during COVID‐19 pandemic: The case for indian women. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/casp.2501.

Naghizadeh, S., Mirghafourvand, M., & Mohammadirad, R. (2021). Domestic violence and its relationship with quality of life in pregnant women during the outbreak of COVID-19 disease. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 21, 1-10. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-021-03579-x.

Sharma, P., & Khokhar, A. (2021). Domestic violence and coping strategies among married adults during lockdown due to coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in india: A cross-sectional study. (). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2021.59 Retrieved from Coronavirus Research Database Retrieved from https://www.proquest.com/reports/domestic-violence-coping-strategies-among-married/docview/2496858005/se-2?accountid=141537.

Su, Z., McDonnell, D., Roth, S., Li, Q., Šegalo, S., Shi, F., & Wagers, S. (2021). Mental health solutions for domestic violence victims amid COVID-19: A review of the literature. Globalization and Health, 17, 1-11. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12992-021-00710-7.

Sutton, H. (2021). COVID-19 increases challenges for combating domestic violence. Campus Security Report, 18(2) doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/casr.30800.