AMIE NORONHA
MBA FINANCE – 011605

Title – child labour and poverty

Abstract 1
THE FIRST MOVE TOWARDS ERADICATING CHILD LABOUR.
The International Labour Organisation in the year 2006, first initiated the movement of Eradicating Child Labour and set a target to abolish the same by 2016. However, in the last 4 years only 3%of Child Labour has declined.
The main causes of Child Labour is Poverty, Lack of education, Low Income, Un-employment. The same could be tackled by ensuring children go to school, ensure adults a decent job, fixing minimum age of Employment. These measures combined with effective enforcement of laws that protect children, will certainly keep a check, if not eradicate child labour completely, thereby ensuring drastic fall in the growth of Child Labour.
Author – Anonymous.
Refrence – https://search.proquest.com/central/docview/749016565/FC210D115F644097PQ/2?accountid=141537
Abstract 2
BONDED LABOUR IN PAKISTAN
Bonded Labour is nothing but forced labour due to old debts of the family. The ILO strive vigorously to get away with bonded labour, but due to lack of funds from the European Union, the hands of ILO are tied up and they cannot do much in this regard. However, with whatever funds available, the Pakistan Baitull Mall helped 7000 children to get technical training. Similarly 10000/- child labour got training from ILO. Free Education was given up to Matriculation. However, due to un-employment and poverty, parents prefer their children for Labour. If the government cannot give facility to the parents, they cannot enforce law or punish the guilty parents who encourage Child Labour. As of now, there are great shortages of Schools, teachers and opportunities and without provision for Education, health and opportunities, the Child Labour cannot be removed.
Author- HT Syndication
Refrence-https://search.proquest.com/central/docview/237649768/FC210D115F644097PQ/5?accountid=141537

Abstract 3
A HUNDRED AND SIXTY EIGHT REASONS TO END CHILD LABOUR
The ILO had re-launched its Red Carpet to Child Labour Campaign on the 12th June, 2018 in Brazil. It was put up to end Child Labour. There was an estimate of 168 million who are in child labour and nearly 60 percent of them are working in Agriculture. 85% of which work for most work form of child labour i.e. hazardous work.
The red card campaign will involve sport, art for children and their families to encourage children as well as change the current situation of child labour. Vargha further explained that there was not one response to child labour.
Author- Anonymous.
Reference-https://search.proquest.com/central/docview/1540468625/FC210D115F644097PQ/13?accountid=141537
Abstract 4
WORK FOR SURVIVAL FOR THE SYRIANS
In Turkey a Syrian Child has to Work for Survival. Over One million Syrian refugees live in Turkey. A boy named Ahmad was one of them who was the only bread winner in their family at the age of 9 when he lost his father at the battle field in Syria. In Turkey they didn’t have choices but to work to survive. Like Ahmad, many young children were forced to work in sweet shops, factories or vegetable fields. UNICEF has reported, that there were nearly 3 million Syrian children out of school. One other factor preventing children from attending school includes language barriers, confusion over enrolment, procedures and transportation related issues.
After the deal with European Union and Turkey, the Turkish government introduced work permits for Syrians in January to help stop exploitation in the Labour Markets.
Author- CEYLAN YEGINSU
Reference- https://search.proquest.com/central/docview/1793771306/611C3B42DF774B5BPQ/1?accountid=141537
Abstract 5
CHILD LABOUR ON THE RISE IN AGRICULTURAL SECTOR
Child labour in agriculture is a global issue that is harming the life of the children as well as damaging the agricultural sector also perpetuating rural poverty. The children lose their opportunity to attend school and develop their skill because they are forced to work for long hours. Also the families of these young children are dependent on them. This deprives the Child the opportunity to go to school which in turn prevents them from getting decent jobs and income in the future.
FAQ and its partners are trying to end the dependence of family farms and enterprises on child labour through improving skill of especially small family farmers providing them access to inputs and credit especially for woman. The FAQ also boost the income of the rural families in order to eradicate Child Labour.
Author-PR Newswire Africa
Refrence-https://search.proquest.com/central/docview/2053553515/7B05BFF2637549FBPQ/8?accountid=141537
Abstract 6
ABDUCTION ON ACCOUNT OF CHILD LABOUR
A 13 year old girl named Savitri from Uttar Pradesh, was abducted while walking down the road with her Mother in Dataganj District. The police officer on being informed about this incident had set out to look for the man who had been recognised but couldn’t find him. They demolished his hut and put the matter aside.
Activist for children’s rights, who say that under-registration as well as under reporting of missing children is a chronic problem. They estimate that the actual number of the missing children is much higher. To look out for a missing child you need to have a lot of time, manpower and resources and the police force. Some Police Stations does not have Telephone and sometimes the victims relations have to provide for the fuel to the Police in order to find their missing child. Hence the missing children cases are on the rise.
Mr. Abhijeet Banerjee a director of the The Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Labour stated that some parents even sell their children or deliberately allow daughters to stray in busy market places. Some poor children also fall prey of trafficking network due to the services they offer to the labour contractor in exchange of advance payment. According to NCRB (National Crime Record Bureau) there were 3490 cases of child trafficking registered in 2015.
Author- Faleiro, Sonia
Reference-https://search.proquest.com/central/docview/1965827319/7B05BFF2637549FBPQ/9?accountid=141537
Abstract 7
DIFFERENT FORMS OF CHILD LABOUR IN INDIA
Child Labour is nothing but depriving a child of a normal childhood. It hampers their Physical, Mental, Intellectual, Emotional, Moral and Social growth. It prevents them from reaching their potential as they are deprived of Education. It is very difficult to believe that they are made to work at a very tender age of 4 years. In India, millions of children from the age of four onwards are employed in various industries and occupations.
The many jobs, a child is employed in India are as under :-
Silk Looms :- Silk looms are notorious for employing child labour from as early as 4 years. This they do, so that the children can learn the trade easily.
Tea stalls, Construction sites, Fruit selling on street, Illegal house hold jobs :- Poor children without education and who have nothing to earn for their livelihood, has no choice but to work at Tea Stalls.construction sites, fruit selling etc.
Farming :- is one of the major occupation of the People living in India. India is the 2nd largest populated countries in the world. The mentality of the people in India is More Hands More work and so more Income. Parents of the child engage their ward on the fields at a very early age thereby depriving them of Education.
Author-Community Writer CommunityDrPremcom.
Reference-https://search.proquest.com/central/docview/1807574786/34B5D1FD702E42F8PQ/3?accountid=141537
Abstract 8
POVERTY LEADS TO CHILD LABOUR
The current reality of household poverty in general and child poverty in particular, are driving children into all forms of hazardous activities, both in the rural and urban areas when they should be at school or studying or helping at home or playing with their friends. Although official statistics are outdated or unavailable, anecdotal evidence is overwhelming. Large formal-sector organisations tend not to employ children who are below the age of 15, because it is prohibited by the law and is monitored by the labour inspectorate system. This system is not effective in regulating the exploitation of children in the informal sector, however. The big challenge is poverty that tends to fuel hazardous child labour and rampant exploitation. This draws our attention to the urgency of sustainable and equitable economic growth and an extended coverage of social protection programmes.
Author – The Herald; Harare
Reference-https://search.proquest.com/central/docview/1967058842/7B05BFF2637549FBPQ/10?accountid=141537
Abstract 9
UNPAID CHILD LABOUR
In 2008, almost one-fifth of all children from age five years to age seventeen years were child labourers. Although no consensus exists on a single definition of child labour, both paid labour and unpaid labour should be included. Paid labour is often considered the most prevalent form of child labour. There is much evidence of the negative effects of the incidence of child labour on educational participation and attainment that deter human capital formation. Of course, providing labour may give a child an opportunity to acquire skills. If education provides better access to high-wage jobs and/or parents value education as a benefit in itself, then parents should be encouraged to send their children to school rather than to work and the amount of labour provided by children should be small or zero. Nevertheless, many children are actually being forced to work, whether paid or unpaid, because of poverty. Some children perform market work for the subsistence of the family and directly alleviate a family’s poverty.
Author-Shimada, Akira
Reference-https://search.proquest.com/central/docview/2116079935/7B05BFF2637549FBPQ/12?accountid=141537
Abstract 10
OUR CHILDREN
Kailash Satyarthi, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2014 for his efforts to end child labor, urged U.S. lawmakers to fight for the freedom of 168 million children forced to work due to poverty, trafficking or slavery. A former engineer who turned to activism decades ago. Adults are more expensive labor. Children can be confined. Kalu was freed from the carpet industy . He was enslaved for about six years and he was freed by me in a very risky operation. At that time he was about 11 or 12. He was a bright child. He lived in one of our three rehab centers, where he went to school. He topped his class and helped other children, so we promoted him. If you stop children from entering good, quality free education, you are creating more tension and violence in the world. The illiteracy and exploitation of children, the growing inequality of children, is the most serious threat. These children can be brainwashed for extremism or terrorism. They’re vulnerable. If we were investing enough in education in Afghanistan, India, Pakistan where we see these problems, we might not be facing threats today.
Author –Gharib, Malaka.
Reference-https://search.proquest.com/central/docview/1913195502/34B5D1FD702E42F8PQ/5?accountid=141537